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November 24, 2014

KDrama Word of the Day: Yeoreum (Summer)

Yeoreum (여름) brings our Koreans seasons series full circle. You’ll remember the ㅕfrom 겨울. The pronunciation is yuh-room (or yaw-room), with a slightly rolled R (여름 is sometimes Romanized as yeoleum).
Bright green rice grass leaves

RICE PLANTS

Korea has monsoon summers (장마 jangma – rainy season), with heavy rain and high humidity. There is nothing comparable in the U.S. For specifics, check out this page. For those of us in the still-non-metric U.S., it’s nice to have temperature charts that include a Fahrenheit column.

I hope you have enjoyed our season miniseries. Korean seasons appear frequently in Korean drama titles, and in all genres of Korean music, from Kpop to folk to trot, and beyond.

This is Thanksgiving week in the U.S., so I’ll try to keep our word selections for the rest of the week seasonal. About 1/2 of mihansa’s readers are in east and southeast Asia. For their benefit, here is what Thanksgiving week in the U.S. is like: Although Thanksgiving Day isn’t until Thursday, travel has already begun, as people pack airports and highways to spend the holiday with families. Most businesses will be closed on Thanksgiving Day, but many people will have the following day day off work, too, so “Black Friday” becomes a day of major sales and intense Christmas shopping. Bad weather, which is common in late November, can complicate matters as everyone returns home.


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November 23, 2014

KDrama Word of the Day: Bom (Spring)

Bom (봄) is our next Korean season. It is also Romanized as pom, a closer, but less common, English equivalent to the Korean pronunciation. The Korean word for spring rhymes with “dome.”
A twig of cherry blossoms
KDrama likes to associate bom with cherry blossoms and 애인 (ae-een – lovers). However, the trees are controversial in Korea, due to their association with Japan and the Japanese occupation. Cutting down cherry trees planted during that period was at one time symbolic of taking back Korea. Planting cherry species that are native to Korea has become something of a compromise. You will notice that words for other spring flowers appear on this list of Korean words associated with spring, but no cherry blossoms.

Even less welcome in spring are storms of yellow sand (황사 – hwangsa). These storms blow in from deserts of northern China and Mongolia, picking up a heavy load of toxic pollutants along the way. When inhaled, the dust can be seriously injurious to health. If you see a street scene with pedestrians wearing particle masks during bom, that is probably the reason.

Note ㅁ, the M-ish letter in Korean. In small type or handwriting, this letter can be difficult to distinguish from ㅇ, which we discussed yesterday. Watch for squared corners.


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November 22, 2014

KDrama Word of the Day: Winter (Kyeoul)

Kyeoul (겨울), winter is our KDrama word for today. Does that string of vowels look familiar? You have seen it before in the name of South Korea’s capital and largest city, Seoul (서울).
Stacked kimchi jars in a snowy valley next to a sign in Korean
You’ll see that the second letter is similar but different in these two words. The ㅓ in Seoul has only one left-facing flag on the vertical, while the ㅕin kyeoul has two. A second flag on a vowel, whether on a horizontal or vertical bar, gives it a Y sound at the beginning. So ㅓ (in Seoul) is pronounced uh or aw, while ㅕ(in kyeoul) is pronounced yuh or yaw. Many Korean vowels have these two forms, which are considered to be two separate letters.

Moving on to the second syllable, in both words, it begins with ㅜ, the “oo” U-letter we talked about in the last post. Kyeoul is pronounced kyuh-ool or kyaw-ool, while Seoul is pronounced suh-ool or saw-ool (NOT “sole,” as most Americans pronounce it). Even though both words have two syllables, the syllables are blended together rather than enunciated separately, so it sounds more like a syllable-and-a-half. You can hear the pronunciation for kyeoul and many other winter-related words on this page.

But wait, you may be thinking. The second syllable doesn’t begin with ㅜ, it begins with ㅇ. Well, yes and no. ㅇ has a dual nature. In theory, Korean syllables must begin with a consonant. When they don’t, ㅇ stands in for the consonant, as a placeholder with no sound. At the end of a syllable, however, ㅇ has an “ng” sound.

Have you learned Hangeul yet? You may have some free time next week, so check out these games:


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November 20, 2014

KDrama Word of the Day: Fall (Kaeul)

Fall (가을) is 우리 Kdrama Word for today. Korea is definitely a 4-season country, with chilly winters, monsoon summers, fall color, and spring blossoms. You may also see 가을 Romanized as gaeul, but kaeul is a better phonetic spelling. The vowel syllable is partly absorbed into the first syllable, so kah-eul sounds like one syllable with a dragged-out first vowel, rather than two distinct syllables.
Close up photo of oak leaves turned red in fall
Note that the Hangeul letters ㅡ and ㅜ have different U-sounds.
ㅡ is usually Romanized as “eu,” but it is not, strictly speaking, an English-language sound, so it is difficult to Romanize accurately. The English words “eu” appears in are typically loan words from French. The “eu” is often pronounced “oo” in the English version (which is the sound of Hangeul letter ㅜ). Example: entrepreneur. The “eu” sound is formed just inside the lips, while “oo” comes from further back.

What’s a loan word, you may ask? A loan word is a word borrowed from another language (and usually changed a bit along the way). English is full of French loan words and phrases. Some are obviously French, such as deja vu, faux pas, cachet, nouveau riche, hors d’oeuvre, fait accompli, coup d’etat, dossier, memoir, rapport and restaurant. Others are everday words we may not think of as French – mayonnaise, unique, ambulance, denim, pioneer, detour, corduroy, menu, dentist, portrait, route, soup, zest, bicycle, publicity, and salvage, to name just a few. Watch out for words in Korean that seem like loan words of English words that are themselves loan words from another language. Sometimes the Korean word is a loan word of the original word, not the English version.

Somewhere between 50-70% of Korean words are loan words from Chinese, due to a long history of military and economic domination from the west. For this reason, Chinese speakers may be able to understand a great deal of Korean without studying the language. Korean also has many English loan words, especially for technology (like 핸드폰), and other aspects of modern urban life (like 뉴스).

And then there are cognates. Cognates are similar-sounding words in related languages that come from the same root. For example, I am able to understand quite a lot of words in Spanish that I have never studied, because they sound similar to the English words. You have to watch out though, because cognates have sometimes evolved different meanings in different languages, even though they sound similar and came from the same parent word.

And finally, there is Konglish. These days, the term is generally used to describe Korean loan words from English. However, I have read that it originally referred to the clever use of Korean words that sounded like English words to convey a double meaning in English and Korean.


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