November 20, 2014

KDrama Word of the Day: Fall (Kaeul)

Fall (가을) is 우리 Kdrama Word for today. Korea is definitely a 4-season country, with chilly winters, monsoon summers, fall color, and spring blossoms. You may also see 가을 Romanized as gaeul, but kaeul is a better phonetic spelling. The vowel syllable is partly absorbed into the first syllable, so kah-eul sounds like one syllable with a dragged-out first vowel, rather than two distinct syllables.
Close up photo of oak leaves turned red in fall
Note that the Hangeul letters ㅡ and ㅜ have different U-sounds.
ㅡ is usually Romanized as “eu,” but it is not, strictly speaking, an English-language sound, so it is difficult to Romanize accurately. The English words “eu” appears in are typically loan words from French. The “eu” is often pronounced “oo” in the English version (which is the sound of Hangeul letter ㅜ). Example: entrepreneur. The “eu” sound is formed just inside the lips, while “oo” comes from further back.

What’s a loan word, you may ask? A loan word is a word borrowed from another language (and usually changed a bit along the way). English is full of French loan words and phrases. Some are obviously French, such as deja vu, faux pas, cachet, nouveau riche, hors d’oeuvre, fait accompli, coup d’etat, dossier, memoir, rapport and restaurant. Others are everday words we may not think of as French – mayonnaise, unique, ambulance, denim, pioneer, detour, corduroy, menu, dentist, portrait, route, soup, zest, bicycle, publicity, and salvage, to name just a few. Watch out for words in Korean that seem like loan words of English words that are themselves loan words from another language. Sometimes the Korean word is a loan word of the original word, not the English version.

Somewhere between 50-70% of Korean words are loan words from Chinese, due to a long history of military and economic domination from the west. For this reason, Chinese speakers may be able to understand a great deal of Korean without studying the language. Korean also has many English loan words, especially for technology (like 핸드폰), and other aspects of modern urban life (like 뉴스).

And then there are cognates. Cognates are similar-sounding words in related languages that come from the same root. For example, I am able to understand quite a lot of words in Spanish that I have never studied, because they sound similar to the English words. You have to watch out though, because cognates have sometimes evolved different meanings in different languages, even though they sound similar and came from the same parent word.

And finally, there is Konglish. These days, the term is generally used to describe Korean loan words from English. However, I have read that it originally referred to the clever use of Korean words that sounded like English words to convey a double meaning in English and Korean.


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